Roller Compacted Concrete(or RCC) is made of the similar ingredients as common concrete including Portland cement, aggregates(sand and gravels or crushed stones) and water but is composed of different proportions. The name of RCC is from the construction method used to place and finish the material that is different from the placing methods of conventional concrete. RCC is placed with conventional or high-density asphalt pavers to form a non-reinforced, concrete pavement, then compacted by a non-vibratory or vibratory roller. Roller compacted concrete is an ultra-tough, zero-slump and durable type of concrete pavement with the compressive strengths greater than 4,000 psi to bear the weight of 20 ton rollers and stiff enough to be compacted by high density pavers. Typically, RCC is constructed without joints. It needs neither forms nor finishing, nor does it contain dowels or steel reinforcing. These characteristics make roller-compacted concrete simple, fast, and economical.
RCC can be well suited for low-speed, industrial or military applications such as low-speed roads arterial roads, intermodal yards, distribution centers, or equipment hardstands where surface smoothness and appearance are secondary to high durability, low maintenance, and low initial cost. To improve surface smoothness and texture, RCC can be diamond ground or a thin asphalt or concrete overlay can be applied. Additionally, the roller compacted pavement can also be used for surfaces and rehabilitation of Streets and local roads, Residential streets, High-volume intersections/roads (rehab), Industrial access roads, Parking lots, Highway shoulders, Airport aprons and taxiways.
RCC first was used to build dams. Besides the reduced construction costs resulting mainly from labor and equipment savings, 9 its principal advantage for mass construction is the low cement content of the mixture which greatly reduces problems due to the heat of hydration of cement.40,44 Since the completion in 1982 of the first two major RCC projects, i.e., the Shimajigawa Dam in Japan and the Willow Creek Dam in United States, the technique has gained wide acceptance throughout the world. At the beginning of the last decade, more than 40 major projects had been completed worldwide and more than 40 other RCC dams were constructed.
Also attracted by the significant construction cost savings, road contractors rapidly adapted the technique to their needs. As with dam construction, the method offers the advantage of rapid production rates with readily available equipment and the need for a limited technical crew. Considered as a high-strength concrete pavement well adapted for heavy-duty applications, RCC gradually has been viewed by many road designers as an interesting alternative to conventional portland cement concrete and asphalt pavements.
Even if its share of the global road-construction market is still extremely low in North America, RCC is now commonly accepted as an unsurfaced pavement for the construction of truck and aircraft parking areas, container ports, haul roads and hardstands for tracked vehicles. Overtopped with an asphaltic hot mixture, RCC also can serve as a rigid foundation for secondary city streets.